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Emotive language: He seeks to defend the police’s actions and describes the situation as very tense and chaotic. The public was worried and “terrified” because the young boy was “flashing” knives. He supports the police’s version that the boy failed to follow “warnings”.
Fear tactics: Mr Jay Fadal’s story proves that it was a stressful situation and no one knew if Jim had guns. Had he been armed the situation could have spiralled out of control and he could have caused a lot of damage.
Mr Jay Fadal seeks to instil a sense of fear in members of the public by comparing the incident to the “Virginia Tech Massacre” to show how serious it was. Therefore, the police acted correctly and decisively. He also seeks to reassure members of the public about safety issues.
Exercise 20: P-plate extensions overdue (Mr Jonathon Sprinter (p. 31)
- The author refers to an expert, the commissioner of traffic, who asserts that a seven year probationary period that includes zero-alcohol readings, would reduce traffic accidents. He is credible because he has professional experience with regards to traffic control.
Enhancing (improving/increasing) his credibility, the author uses an expert to suggest that his solution would prevent accidents.
- Statistics: the statistics prove that there are too many young adults involved in tragic car accidents. The young adults are disproportionately represented in car accidents which suggests that there is a problem with drinking, speed and young adults.
- Expert opinion: the reference to the surgeon proves that young people’s brains are underdeveloped. He suggests that they cannot be trusted to measure their alcohol intake and therefore are potentially endangering their lives and that of other road users.
- The author refers to the real-life anecdotal story of Emma Richardson to show the devastating consequences of one fatal mistake. Emma is cited as a typical example of teenagers who are killed because they seem to underestimate the dangers on the road. They also jeopardize the safety of other drivers. The quotes from her mother also reinforce the tragic consequences and devastating impact to the family. The author includes this story to show both parents and young adults that mistakes can have tragic consequences, and to encourage them to be keen about tighter regulations.
- Research : Motor Trends: The author refers to a study published in the Motor Trends magazine in Sweden. This provides a comparative example. It proves that if people drink less when driving then there will be less accidents. This also reinforces the author’s view that teenagers, in particular, should not have access to alcohol.
Typical paragraph (techniques and their purpose: See p. 68)
Mr Sprinter recommends that the government extends the P-plate restrictions in order to reduce road accidents. He refers to the expert opinion of the Assistant Commissioner to show that the extension is a logical move. Bluntly, he states that it would lead to a “marked” reduction in the number of drink driving tragedies, which implies that failure to act is an irresponsible move. According to Mr Sprinter, the statistics suggest that the P-Platers are over-represented in accidents on the road (the number is disproportionate). This alarming state of affairs is likely to make all motorists very uneasy about road safety and further reinforces a case for urgent action as does the sympathetic reference to the sad plight of the families. Also, the emotive and critical depiction of the young drivers as “irresponsible” further sparks anger and hostility among all motorists. The author also appeals to community safety standards and seeks to further arouse anger by pointing out that their reckless driving “jeopardises” the safety of all road users.
Exercise 21: Impossible to trust (p. 32)
- Impossible to trust: According to Ms Goodwin, the statistics prove that not all eggs that are labelled as free range eggs could possibly be accurate. Up to 45 million eggs are sold as free range and there would have to be 2.5 million free range chickens rather than 1 million. She implies that many of the egg manufacturers are therefore deceiving customers because their eggs are not completely genuine free-range eggs.
- Big time for the pokers: the statistics reveal that there is an excess of poker machines in Australia and their easy accessibility is causing gambling problems for vulnerable people. Lives are being “ruined” and families “destroyed”. This information is useful for charity groups and government planners who are seeking a reduction in the amount of poker machines. (The author refers to statistical evidence to prove that easy access to poker machines is ruining people’s lives and their families. Specifically, there is one poker machine for 108 people in the community in Australia. Australia rates as one of the top 10 gambling hotspots in the world. This shows that too many people in Australia are involved in problem gambling.)
- No stars for plasmas: In the light of the fact that plasma televisions are using up too much electricity, the Nielson survey suggests that 85 per cent of Australian adults believe there should be an ‘energy efficiency’ rating system. This would enable people to make informed choices. It would also force electrical products to be more energy efficient in order to compete in the market place.
Exercise 22: Should alcohol be banned near junior football matches
- EDFL general manager, Marc Turri, believes that the restrictions will benefit the players and parents alike. He recognises the fact that the ban will harm the clubs and restrict their income but they must become “smarter”. Even though he is club president he is prepared to make decisions for the benefit of families and a healthy environment, even though he knows such decisions would harm the club. For this reason, parents would respect him.
- Ms Goldsmith is a parent. She is an eyewitness and has first-hand experience of the problems caused by drinking. She is trustworthy because she wants the best for the children. She draws attention to the particularly “loutish” behaviour of the “yobbos” to alarm parents about their poor influence.
- Mr Abe Scott is the Home Affairs Minister and can be trusted because he is seeking to protect families. He reasonably believes that if children are exposed to harmful behaviour then they may learn to imitate it. He, too, earns respect from parents because he seeks to protect children and realises that drinking to excess in public places can cause copy cat behaviour, especially among youngsters.
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